October in the Vegetable Garden

October in the Vegetable Garden

  • By Ralph Morini
  • /
  • October 2019-Vol.5 No.10
  • /

Is October really here? It’s been a long, hot and very dry summer that has stressed gardens and gardeners alike. I’m a raised bed vegetable gardener and love the economies of soil management, weeding and watering that are my normal dividends.

This year however, the watering became burdensome, and if I’m honest, I really didn’t keep up with it. In addition, I had stink bugs everywhere and for the first time, squirrels eating the tomatoes.

Photo: gardensall.com

Recently, the deer, which seem skinnier than normal, appear to be less picky than usual in their food choices. It’s been a tough summer for all of us outdoor mammals. Let’s hope that fall brings both cooler weather and some rain.

On the positive side, if you planted some fall crops last month, they should be approaching harvestability. A good fall/early winter harvest helps us forget the tough summer and recharge enthusiasm for winter garden care and spring planting.

If you are trying to nurse summer crops deeper into the fall, frost concerns become a consideration. The next few paragraphs are borrowed from last year’s article written by Cleve Campbell. They provide a nice list of suggestions to help prevent frost damage:


October is paranoia season because in our area, it is the first frost month — usually around the 15th of the month. It can arrive earlier or later, but we know it is going to happen; we just don’t know exactly when. I always have peppers needing just a little more time to turn to that brilliant red or perfect golden yellow, or tomatoes on one plant or the other that are slow in ripening, or that one lettuce bed that is just starting to rock, so I am glued to the weather report, trying to catch that first freeze warning. I can’t count the times we’ve had a frost, and then right afterwards, Indian summer shows up smiling and bringing temperatures in the 70s and 80s for a couple of weeks after all the frost damage is done. I have finally come to the conclusion that waiting for that freeze warning is too late because there are precautions that can be taken to extend the growing season before that dreaded frost forecast.

There are two types of frost, advective and radiation. Advective frost occurs when a cold front sweeps into an area. A radiation frost occurs under calm winds and clear sky, allowing radiant heat from the earth to rise to the upper layers of the atmosphere. With radiation frost, the lack of wind prevents mixing of the air and an inversion develops. An inversion is just a fancy way of saying “things get turned around from the normal.” Normally the air closest to the ground is the warmest, but when an inversion happens, cold air collects near the ground while the warmer air lies above the trapped cold air. During an inversion, cold air is just like water running down a hill — it seeks the lowest point because it is heavier than warm air, and frost pockets may form. The first frost typically is a radiation frost that occurs on a calm, clear night.  

There are several things we can do when a frost warning is issued:

Harvest early: Flowering plants such as beans, tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, squash and okra need to be harvested if there is no way to protect them. Fruit harvested in the mature green stage will still ripen, but sadly will not have the same flavor as a vine-ripened fruit.

Water before a frost: Moist soil can hold approximately four times more heat than dry soil. Moist soil can also conduct heat to the soil surface faster than dry soil, providing some frost protection. A Cornell University study suggests that the air temperature above a wet soil is 5°  higher than that above a dry soil, and in the study, that difference was maintained until 6 a.m. The conclusion of this study was that plants could benefit from watering the evening before a frost.

Cover your plants: A cover can provide anywhere from 2º to 6º F of protection, depending on the type of material used. The covers can be laid right on top of the plants or can be supported by stakes or a frame, the main difference being that there is less frost protection when the cover touches the plant. Any material can be used as cover; however, woven fabrics are better insulators than plastics or paper. The best time to apply covers is in the late afternoon after the wind dies down. Remove the covers the next morning.

                                             “Hoop-House” with plastic being used for frost protection

Row cover provides 2º to 6º F of frost protection

Additional Tips and Tasks for October:

  • Plant garlic and shallots to harvest next year. Check out this article from the September 2015 Garden Shed for garlic growing advice.
  • Harvest tender herbs (basil) before the first frost. They can be hung to dry in a cool dark place or the leaves can be frozen for use at a later time.
  • If you are thinking about planting a fruit tree, fall is the time to plant. You may be able to save a little money by catching a sale at local garden centers. Water the newly-planted tree thoroughly to provide sufficient moisture and prevent winter damage. Add a 3-inch layer of organic mulch, leaving a 3-4” gap around the tree base, to retain soil moisture and moderate soil temperature. Research has shown that roots will continue to grow until the soil freezes, which is typically late November in Virginia. Stake and wire newly-planted trees only if necessary. Use a piece of rubber hose around the guy wires to protect the trunk. The guy wires should be tied loosely enough so that the tree is able to move a little in the wind. The supports and stakes should be removed once the tree becomes established, usually in a couple of months.
  • Fall is an excellent time for taking soil samples. A soil test measures the pH (acidity or alkalinity) of the soil and the levels of some of the major elements required for plant growth, such as phosphorus, magnesium and potassium. If lime is required to adjust the pH, now is a good time to apply it. A free soil test kit is available from your local extension office.
  • Pick up dropped fruit from under fruit trees so that deer and rodents will not be attracted to the fruit or your growing tree. Raking and disposing of diseased leaves will help keep insects and diseases under control next season.
  • High grass and mulch are a haven for rodents whose gnawing can severely damage trunks. Keep the grass mowed around new trees.  Be sure that mulch is raked back 3-4 inches away from the base of the tree.
  • Tomatoes need an average daily temperature of 65º F or higher in order to ripen. If daytime temperatures are consistently below this temperature, pick the fruits that have begun to change color and bring them inside to ripen.
  • Harvest sweet potatoes before frost because cold soil temperatures can reduce their quality and storage life. Removing the vine first can make the digging a lot easier. Also, take care when digging sweet potatoes because they skin and bruise very easily.
  • When removing disease-infested plants or debris, do not place this refuse on the compost pile. The disease pathogens may continue to live in the compost pile and be transmitted when the compost is applied to the garden. Probably best to burn or bag and landfill it.
  • After frost, cut back asparagus foliage to within 2 inches of the ground.
  • There is still time to plant a winter rye cover crop. A cover crop protects the soil over the winter, traps any unused nutrients to prevent them from leeching, and adds organic matter in the spring when tilled under. These Garden Shed articles from September 2015 and August 2017 can provide guidance.
  • If you aren’t into cover crops, or wait too long to plant, cover the garden soil with a few inches of mulched leaves or aged wood chips. Reduce nutrient leaching, carbon loss and moderate temperature variation.
  • If you haven’t kept up with garden documentation, this is your last chance. It’s a good idea to diagram the garden along with specific crop locations. Crop rotation is an important organic tool for minimizing insect and disease issues passing from one season to the next
  • Vegetable crops in the same botanical family are often susceptible to the same diseases and insects. For crop rotation to be effective, gardeners should not plant vegetables belonging to the same family in the same location for at least two or three years. Obviously, crop rotation in a small garden may be difficult. However, we should rotate our vegetable crops as best we can.

Thanks for stopping by The Garden Shed; we look forward to your visit next month.



Phillips, Ben, “Freeze Damage in Fall Vegetables: Identifying and Preventing,” http://msue.anr.msu.edu/news/freeze_damage_in_fall_vegetables_identifying_and_preventing

Relf, Diane, Virginia Cooperative Extension, “The Virginia Gardener Newsletter,”Volume 23, Number 9/10, 2004, page 7.

Colorado State University, Publication GMG #722, “Frost Protection and Extending the Growing Season,” http://cmg.colostate.edu/Gardennotes/722.pdf

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.